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CHAZAQ Articles

Yahrzeits – Week of 29 Adar

29 Adar

Rabbeinu Yitzchak (ben Asher) of Speyer. Grandson of the Riva, he was murdered with numerouis other Jews because of a blood libel (1196).
Rav Shlomo (Dov Tzvi Hakohen) Rabinowitzof Radomsk, first Rebbe of the Radomsk dynasty (1803-1866). Born in Volotchova, he learned with the Bris Avraham of Pietrikov and became a chassid of the Ohr Lashamayim of Apt. He first took the position of Rav of Radomsk in 1834 and later took on the yoke of Rebbe. His chassidus grew significantly after Reb Moshe of Lelov moved to Eretz Yisrael and instructed his Chassidim to follow Rav Shlomo. He was the author of Tiferes Shlomo on Chumash and the moadim.

Rav Chaim Shmuel Birnbaum, son-in-law of Rav Akiva Eiger and author of Maseh Choshev (1887).
Rav Chaim Welfried of Lodz (1942).
Rav Yaakov (ben Binyomin)Kamenetsky (1891-1986). Born on the 21 Adar, in hamlet of Kalushkove (from which his family moved to Dolhinov), he left for Minsk at the age of 11. Among his friends there were the future Rav Reuven Grozovsky, and the young Aaron Kotler. Shortly after Pesach in 1905, Reb Yaakov and Reb Aaron traveled to Slobodka to learn under the supervision of the Alter of Slobodka. Reb Yaakov also learned in Slutzk. During World War I he took refuge in Lomza in the yeshiva of Reb Yechiel Michel Gordon. On 22 Sivan, 1919, he married the Rebbetzin Ita Ettel. On 11th Av 1937, he left for America and was appointed Rav in Toronto. In 1945, he accepted the request of Reb Shraga Feivel Mendelovitz that he take up the position of Rosh Yeshiva in Mesivta Torah Vodaas. He stayed there for the rest twenty years, after which he moved to Monsey, officially "retired" but working tirelessly for US and world Jewery. His chidushim were printed in his seforim Emes LeYaakov, on Torah and on Shas. As he requested, he was buried in Mt. Judah Cemetery on the Brooklyn/Queens border, since he pointed out that most of his family live in America and would not always be able to travel to his kever in Eretz Yisrael. From this, his last request we learn yet another chapter of his feelings for others.
Rav Moshe Rubin (1996). Born in Slonim, Moshe Rubin learned in the Lubavitch Yeshiva of Otwock, near Warsaw, and spent the war years in Shanghai. Emigrating to Montreal in 1947 where he served as a shochet, he  was known among all Jewish circles for his long, warm, passionate and dedicated davening each day, and the many inspiring Torah vertlach and stories that he shared with young and old. He is included in Torah U'Mesorah's "Shanghai" documentary as one who helped revive Yiddishkeit in Canada after the war. His son, Rav Yisrael Rubin, is the head shaliach Chabad in upstate Eastern New York and Rosh Yeshiva of the Maimonides Hebrew Day School in Albany.

Dr. Joseph Kaminetsky (1911-1999). Born in Brooklyn, he attended Yeshiva Rabbi Chaim Berlin, and later Talmudical Academy High School on East Broadway. After high school, he became a member of the very first class of Yeshiva College, from which he graduated magna cum laude in 1932. He later earned his doctorate in education from Teachers College at Columbia University. When he began his tenure at Torah Umesorah, the National Society for Hebrew Day Schools, in 1946, he set as his goal that every town and city with a Jewish population of at least 5,000 have a Jewish day school. In those days, there was only a handful of yeshivos and day schools; there are now 600 such schools with 170,000 students all over the United States. In 1980, he retired and moved to Yerushalayim, to devote himself to full-time learning.

30 Adar                             
Rav Yitzchak Aizikof Zhidachov (1804-1872), a descendent of the Tosfos Yomtov and the nephew and successor of Rav Zvi Hirsch of Zhidachov. One of his four sons became the first Rebbe of Komarna dynasty.

1 Adar                              
Rav Avraham (ben Meir) Ibn Ezra (1089-1164). He was born in Tudela during the height of Spain's Golden Age. There, he established a close friendship with Rav Yehuda Halevi. Three of his uncles were ministers in the royal palace. He moved to Toledo during the benevolent rule of King Alfonso VI. After the king died, however, the anti-semitic masses began to harass the Jews, so he headed south to Muslim Spain - to Granada, Cordova, and Lucena. In 1148, the barbaric Almohades overran Morocco and continued into Spain. He was forced to flee to Rome, Provence, and Rhodes (where he befriended Rabbeinu Tam and other grandsons of Rashi). He traveled to Egypt and learned with the Rambam. He wrote a commentary on the Torah and Navi, based in large part on Hebrew grammar. He also wrote dozens of books on astronomy, astrology, and mathematics.(1194, per Hamodia 2011)
Rav Shabsai (ben Meir) HaKohen Katz, (Shach) author of Sifsei Kohen, recognized as one of the most basic and authoritative commentaries on the Shulchan Aruch (1622-1663). Born in Vilna. He learned in Tyktizin, Cracow and Lublin. He married a great grand-daughter of the Rema. In 1648 the communities of Russian Poland were devastated by Chmielnicki, and Rav Shabsai haKohen was among the sufferers. He authored selichos in tragic memory of the events. He was niftar at the age of 41 in Holleschau, Germany, having completed his commentary to 2 of the 4 sections of the Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah (at age 24) and Choshen Mishpat. Among his other works are Sefer Ha'Aruch on the Tur, Poel Tzedek on the 613 mitzvos, Takfu Cohen on the sugya of the same name in Bava Metzia, and Gevuros Anashim, on cases in which a wife can legally compel her husband to give her a get.
Rav Azariya Figu (Figo) of Venice(1579-1647). Author of Binah La'itim and Gidulei Terumah.
Rav Emanuel Chai (ben Avraham) Riki [or Reiki] (1688-1743). Kabbalist; author of Mishnas Chassidim. He received semicha from Rav Chaim Abulafia in Tzefas. He is buried in Zento, Italy. He also wrote a commentary on Tehillim entitled Chozeh Tzion, and Yosher Leivav.
Rav Yitzchak Eizik Safrin of Komarna (or Komarno) (1800). He was the author of Heichal HaBrachah and Zohar Chai. One son was Rav Tzvi Hirsch Eichenshtein of Zhidachov, the Ateres Tzvi. Another son was Rav Yissochor Berish Eichenshtein of Zhidachov. A third son was Rav Moshe Eichenshtein of Sambor, a fourth was Rav Alexanfer Yom Tov Lipa Eichenshtein, a fifth was Rav Menachem Mendel Eichenshtein, and a sixth was Rav Eli Eichenshtein.
Rav Menachem Mendel of Shklov (1827). He was the leader of the aliya of the followers of the Vilna Gaon to Eretz Yisrael. This is significant because of the many Minhagei Yerushalayim that were established by that Ashkenazi community. His leading student, Yitzchak Eizak Chaver Wildmann (1789-1853), perceived that the obscurity of the kabbalistic system was a major factor in the flight of students and thinkers from Torah to science, secular philosophy and atheism. In Pischey She'arim, R. Yitzchak Eizak Haver vindicates the kabbalah against its detractors, showing that behind its metaphors lies the only system with the power to provide satisfying answers to man's deepest questions about the meaning and purpose of the universe.

Rav Yitzchak Meir (ben Avrohom Yehoshua Heschel) of Zinkov, son of the Apta Rav (1855)
Rav Baruch (ben Chaim) Halberstam of Gorlitz (1830-1906). Born in Rudnick, Poland, to the second of the four wives of the Sanzer Rav. At age 14, he married Pessel, the daughter of Rav Yekusiel Yehuda Teitelbaum, the "Yitav Lev" of Sighet. In his early 30s, he was appointed Rav of Rudnick, and later Rav of Gorlitz. In 1886, after his wife's passing, he married Leah, a granddaughter of the Bnei Yissoscher. In 1860, he was appointed Rav in Rudnick, a position previously held by his father. Rav Baruch served in this capacity for 30 years. In 1876, after his father's petira, Rav Baruch took over the chassidus, and in 1890, he moved to Gorlitz, from where he led his chassidim for the rest of his life.
Rav Uri Yalas of Sambur (1910)
Rav Yosef Tzvi Kalisch of Skrenevitz (1957)
Rav Baruch (ben Gershon Chanoch) Rosenberg, Rosh Yeshiva of Keneses Yisrael, Slabodka in Bnai Brak (1924-2004). Born in Moholiev, Russia, his grandfather was Rav Michel Yechiel Rosenberg, one of Rav Chaim Brisker's chavrusos. In his teens, Rav Baruch attended Mir, where became close to Rav Chaim Shmuelevitz and Rav Yechezkel Levenstein. During World War II, Rav Baruch went to Vilna, and then to Shanghai with the yeshiva. In 1950, he continued his studies in Mir Yerushalayim. The year after his chasuna, he accepted an invitation to be magid shir at the Slabodka Yeshiva in Bnai Brak, where he stayed for 50 years.
Rav Yitzchak Isaac (ben Meir) Eichenstein, the Kiviashder Rav of Forest Hills, Queens (1913-2004). Born in Kashau, Czechoslovakia to the Zhidichov Rav of Kashau. As a youth, he learned under the Kashauer Rav, Rav Shaul Brach. Upon his marriage, he replaced his father-in-law (who had moved away) as Rav of Kishiavd and established a yeshiva. He staued for six years, until the Nazis arrived in 1944. The Rav was sent to Auschvitz and Bergen-Belsen, where he lost his parents, his wife, and his three young children. Despite his nisyonos, he spent his time, infusing others with chizuk. Following the War, he married his father-in-law's younger dauther, established a beis din to be matir hundreds of agunos, and arranged for the education of many orphans. He moved to America and settled in Queens in 1950. In 1953, under the auspices of the Satmar Rav, he established the Central Rabbinical Council of the United States and Canada.

Rav Simcha Bunim (ben Eliezer Yehuda) Waldenberg, only son of the Tzitz Eliezer. He was Rav of the Ezras Torah neighborhood of Yerushalayim and of the Beis Yisrael Beis Midrash for over 30 years (1937-2005)  
2 Adar
Rav Meir Paprish, the Ohr Tzadikim (1624-1662). At the young age of 13, Reb Meir began learning Kabbalah as a student of  Rav Yaakov Tzemach who studied under Rav Shmuel Vital, the son of Rav Chaim Vital.
Rav Dovid ben Moshe Madjar of Yerushalayim, author of Chesed Dovid (1800).
Rav Yom Tov (ben Yisrael Yaakov) Algazi, the Maharit Algazi (1727-1802), one of the main students of the famed kabbalist Rabbi Shalom Sharabi. Stemming from a long line of great Torah sages originating in Spain, his father was av beis din in Izmir, Turkey for over 40 years before being appopinted Rishon Letzion in Yerushalyim. Rav Yom Tov was born in Izmir, and studied together with Rav Chaim Yosef Dovid Azulai (the Chida) as a youth. In 1758, he was appointed rosh yeshiva of Neveh Shalom. In 1782, after the petira of Rav Shalom Sharabi, Rav Yom Tov was appointed rosh yeshiva of Beis Kel and served as Rishon LeTzion following the petira of Rav Rephael Meyuchas. He left behind a legacy of piskei halacha - Shu"t Simchas Yom Tov, Hilchos Yom Tov, and Kedushas Yom Tov. He left one son (Rav Yaakov) and 3 daughters.
Rav Binyamin Zev Lev (ben Elazar Leib) Rokeach (1777-1851). He was born in the small town of Vadislav, and his father, the Shemen Rokeach, sent him to the yeshivos of R' Eliezer Kempne of Prostitz, and of his brother-in- law R' Yirmiyohu of Mattersdorf. He married Feigele, the daughter of Rav Yitzchak Eisik Elkish, Rav of Ushpitzin from the dynasty of the Rebbe R' Heschel and the Moginei Shlomo. He subsequently became rov in Amshinov. He is the author of Shaarei Torah. His son, Yirmiyahu, was author of Divrei Yirmiyahu.

Rav Aharon Aryeh Leib (ben Meir) Hagadol of Premishlan, disciple of Rav Yechiel Michel of Zlotschov (1913)
Rav Yaakov Yechezkiya (ben Moshe) Grunwald of Pupa, author of Vayaged Yaakov (1941). Son of the Arugas Habosem, Reb Yaakov Yechezkiya studied under his father until his marriage. In 1929, Rav Yaakov Yechezkiya was chosen as Rav of Pupa, Hungary. He established a yeshiva there which soon numbered 300 students. Rav Yaakov Yechezkiya's son, Rav Yosef Grunwald, succeeded his father in 1951.
Rav Avraham Kalmanowitz (1891-1965), Av Beis Din of Tiktin, Rosh Yeshivas Mir-U.S. He was a talmid of Slobodka, a Rav of Rakov, and a close friend of Reb Chaim Ozer Grodzenski of Vilna. He was also the founder and head of a kollel, and a leader of Agudath Israel of Poland. After the First World War, the Mirrer Yeshiva appointed him as its president. His wife's grandfather was Rav Betzalel HaKohen, a dayan in Vilna and author of Mareh Kohen. At the beginning of World War II the Rav and his family reached the United States, while his beloved Mirrer Yeshiva escaped from Mir to Vilna, to avoid Soviet persecution. During the War, the Rav was was one of the leading personalities of the Vaad Hatzalah.
Rav Yisrael (ben Avraham Mordechai) Alter, the Beis Yisrael of Ger (1895-1977). The third son of the Imrei Emes, he celebrated a double simcha on his Bar Mitzvah, as he became engaged to his cousin, Chaya Sara. They married two years later. In 1940, the Imrei Emes escaped the Nazis and reached Eretz Yisrael, along with his sons, Rav Yisrael, Rav Simcha Bunim, and Rav Pinchas Menachem. Tragically, Rav Yisrael's wife, daughter, and son perished, a fact he didn't learn until 1945. He remarried in 1948, but had no children from his second wife. After his father's petira, Rav Yisrael assumed the mantle of leadership as the 4th Rebbe of Ger. For the next 29 years, he rebuilt Ger and was a major force in the Moetzes Gedolei HaTorah of Agudas Yisrael. After his passing, Ger was led by his brother, Rav Simcha Bunim, until his petira in 1992. After that, his other brother, Rav Pinchas Menachem led Ger for four years. Since then, Ger has been led by Rav Yaakov Aryeh, the son of Rav Simcha Bunim.

Rav Moshe (ben Yehuda) Schwab (1918-1979). Born in Frankfurt-am-Mein, he was the younger brother of Rav Shimon and Rav Mordechai. He was sent to learn in Kaminetz under Rav Baruch Ber Leibowitz and in Baronovich under Rav Elchonon Wasserman. In 1938, he moved to England and accepted a position at the Kollel in Gateshead. In 1942, he married Rochel Baddiel, daughter of Rav Dovid Baddiel, one of the founding members of the Gateshead kehilla. In 1946, he joined the Yeshiva as mashgiach and became very close to Rav Dessler. He authored Ma'archei Lev on the Yomim Tovim.
Rav Yosef Dov (ben Yitzchak Zev) Halevi Soloveitchik (1916-1981). As a son of the Brisker Rav, Rav Berel, as he was fondly known, was the recipient of the derech halimud of his famous forebearers. During World War II, he fled with his father and the rest of the family to Warsaw, and from there to Eretz Yisrael. After the petira of his father, Rav Berel took over Yeshivas Brisk in Yerushalayim. It was said that he knew Talmud Yerushalmi baal peh. He was buried in Har Hamenuchos. He was succeeded as Rosh Yeshiva by his son Rav Avraham Y. Soloveitchik.
Rav Mordechai (ben Moshe) Wulliger (1895-1995), born in Bishtina-Marmoresh, his primary teacher was Rav Chaim Zvi Teitelbaum, Rav of Sigher and author of Atzei Chaim. Rav Wulliger settled in the United States in 1938 and was a member of the Yeshiva and Mesivta Torah Vodaas for about 50 years. He authored a myriad of seforim, the first of which was Pardes Mordechai (1927).

3 Adar                    
Rav Mordechai Yaffe, author of Levush Mordechai, and known as the Baal HaLevushim (1530-1612). Born to the Rav of Prague, he was sent to Poland to study under the Maharshal and Rama in his youth. Married in 1553, he founded a yeshiva in Prague. However, in 1559, King Ferdinand decreed that the Jews of Prague be evicted. Despite the successful efforts of Pope Pius IV on behalf of the Jews (which resulted in a 2-year delay), the Jews of Prague left the city in 1561. Rav Mordechai settled in Venice, where he learned with Rav Avraham Abuhav and Rav Mittsyahu Delcorte. He became Rav of Horodna (Grodno) in 1572, then Lublin in 1588. In 1598, when the Maharal left Posen for Prague, Rav Mordechai became rabbi of Posen until his death. Two important peirushim on the Levush were written many years later: In Elya Rabba, Rav Eliyahu Shapiro answers many refutation of the Levush brought in the Malbishei Yom Tov, (written by the author of Tosefos Yom Tov), and in Levushei Tzedakah, Rav Tzadok Hakohen answers difficulties raised by the Smah in Levush Choshen Mishpat. [Adar II]
Rav Noach of Krakow, author of Toldos Noach on Midrash (1638)

Rav Noach Chaim Berlin of Altuna, author of Atzei Almogim and Atzei Arazim and Av Beis Din of AH"U (1802).

Rav Binyamin Zev Lev, Rav of Verboi and author of Shaarei Tefilah (1851)
Rav Dovid (ben Mendel) Morgenstern of Kotzk (1866), the eldest son of Reb Mendel of Kotzk
Rav Eliyahu of Mezritch, author of Midreishei Eliyahu (1868)
Rav Eliyahu Dovid Rabinowitz-Teumim, the Aderes (1843-1905). The last part of his name, Teumim denotes the fact that he was a "te'om," or twin. His mother, Chana, was a descendant of the Baal Halevushim and the Chacham Tzvi. After his marriage, Rav Eliyahu Dovid moved to his wife's birthplace, Ponovezh. He served as Rav of Ponovezh from 1872 to 1890 and of Mir from 1890 to 1898. He was then asked to assume the position of chief rabbi of Yerushalayim, at the recommendation of Rav Chaim Ozer Grodzinsky. There, he assisted the 80 year old Rav Shmuel Salant. Rav Eliyahu Dovid served as the rav of Yerushalayim for four years.
Rav Yechiel Malach (1922-2006). Born in Ostrolenka, Poland, he was a talmid muvhak or Rav Avraham Yoffen, he went on to learn in Slobodka, then settled in Brooklyn after the War. He became 9th grade rebbi and manhig ruchani at Yeshivas Be'er Shmuel. At about 1986, he moved to Yerushalayim, where he was marbitz Torah in the Gerrer Yeshiva Ner Yisrael.
4 Adar                           
Rav Achai bar Rav Huna of Rabanan Soverai, 506 CE
Rav Aryeh Leib (ben Sarah and Yosef),known as Reb Leib Sara's (1730-1796). Considered one of the hidden tzadikim by the Baal Shem Tov, he spent his life wandering to raise money for the ransoming of imprisoned. He was known by the name of his mother due to the fact that as a young beautiful girl she married an old melamed who was a hidden tzadik to avoid the advances of a nobleman.

Rav Mordechai Leib Mann, rosh yeshiva Beis Hillel in Bnei Brak
Rav Eliezer ("Lazer") (ben Avraham Shmuel) Gordon (1841-1910). Born in Chernian, Lithuania, he learned at Rav Yisrael Salanter's yeshiva in Kovno with Rav Yitzchak Blazer, Rav Simcha Zissel Ziv, and Rav Naftali Amsterdam. He succeeded his father-in-law as Rav of Kovno, but left after three months to become rav of Kelm, where he opened a yeshiva. Then he went to Slobodka and stayed for 6 months, then he went to Telshe, which had been started in 1877 by Rav Nosson Tzvi Finkel and Rav Eliezer Chavas. In 1897, he hired Rav Leib Chasman as mashgiach to fight off the influences of haskala. Rav Lazer was niftar in London on a fun-raising mission after a fire destroyed the yeshiva in Telshe.

Rav Ephraim Zalman Halpern (1961). Served as Rav of fourteen chassidic Kehillos in Denver,CO, during and after WW 1, and Rav in New York City. He moved to Yerushalim in 1935 and established the Central Committee for Taharas Hamishpacha, building hundreds of Mikvaos all over the country.
Rav Avraham (ben Chaim Menachem Bentzion) Blumenkrantz (1944-2007). Born in Palestine four years before the founding of the state of Israel, Reb Avraham and his family were abroad at the outset of the War of Independence. In the early 1950s the family settled in Bogotá, Colombia, where his father became chief rabbi. Reb Avraham came to New York as a teenager to study at Mesivta Tiferes Yerushalayim under Rav Moshe Feinstein, with whom Rabbi Blumenkrantz maintained a close relationship until Rabbi Feinstein's death in 1986. Under the guidance of Rav Moshe, Rav Avraham took positions at Staten Island and Brooklyn. He also became Rav in Far Rockaway. He also became well-known for his Pesach guide.

5 Adar   
Rav Yosef (ben Moshe Pinchas) of Pozen (1736-1801). After his bar mitzvah, Rav Yechezkel Landau (the Nodeh BiYehudah) chose him as a son-in-law. In 1780, he was chosen Rav in Posen, where he founded a yeshiva and where he remained until his petira. Most of his teshuvos and chiddushim were lost in a fire. A small compilation remained and was called Zichron She'eiris Yosef. In his haskama, Rav Moshe Teumim wrote that six years after his petira, the government ordered the cemeteries cleared out. When they got to Rav Yosef's kever, they found his body entact, as it was at the petira. In fright and awe, the government cancelled the decree.
Rav Ze'ev Wolf (Velvele) (ben Naftali Tvi) of Ostracha (also known as Tcharni-Ostraa) (1823). He was a close talmid of the Maggid of Mezritch and Rav Pinchas of Koritz. Thereafter, he became a follower of Rav Meshulam Feivish of Zhebariza, the Yosher Divrei Emes. He married the daughter of Reb Zushe of Hanipoli. Three years after the petira of the Yosher Divrei Emes, he made aliya (in 1798) and settled in Teveriya, where he is buried.
Rav Avraham (ben Enosh) HaLevi Bing of Wurzberg (1841), author of Zichron Avraham.
Rav Shmuel Avraham Abba (ben Moshe) Shapira of Slavita (1864). Printer of the famous "Slavita Talmud"; grandson of Rav Pinchas of Koretz.
Rav Yeshaya Mushkat, the Harei Besamim (1868)
Rav Avraham (ben Refael) Landau of Tchechenov (1875). Born in Prantzav, he married at 16 and had 4 children. Lodz and Lublin fought for the honor of hiring Rav Avraham as their rav, but he instead chose to lead the small rural community of Tchechenov. Only after the Kotzker Rebbe and Rav Yitzchak Meir had passed away, and hundreds of their followers turned to Rav Avraham for blessings and advice, did he finally agree to became a Rebbe.
Rav Yechezkel Yalzon, Rav of Altuna (1885)
Rav Mordechai Shlomo (ben Yitzchak) Friedman (1891-1971), Boyaner Rebbe in New York. He was the son of the first Boyaner Rebbe, the Pachad Yitzchak, and the brother of Rav Menahem Nahum Friedman(1869-1936), Boyanaer Rebbe of Chernovitz,Rav Yisrael Friedman(1878-1951), Boyaner Rebbe of Leipzig and Tel-Aviv, and Rav Abraham Yaakov Friedman (1884-1941), Boyaner Rebbe of Lemberg. His grandson, Rav Nachum Dov Brayer, is the present Boyaner Rebbe of Yerushalayim.

Rav Yosef Farbstein (1947-2006). Grandson of Rav Yechezkel Sarna, he became Rosh Kollel of Beis Shmuel under Rav Horowitz, the Av Beis Din of Ungar. In 1970 he married Rebbetzin Gittel, daughter of Rav Akiva Ehrenfeld, founder of Yerushalayim's Mattersdorf neighborhood and nasi of its institutions, and the granddaughter of Rav Shmuel Ehrenfeld, the Gavad of Mattersdorf, Austria. In 1988, he was appointed Ram in Yeshivas Ohr Elchanan under Rav Moshe Chodosh.

6 Adar

Rav Shmuel ben Natronai, one of the Baalei Tosefos, was tortured and martyred (1197).
Rav Aryeh Leib, author of Panim Chadashos (1789)
Rav Yitzchak Auerbach, author of Divrei Chaim (1846) [Adar II]
Rav Daniel (ben Binyamin Wolf) Prostitz (1759-1846). Rav of Pressburg and colleague of the Chasam Sofer. Appropriately, he was buried near the Chasam Sofer. His chidushim on meseches Pesachim were published under the name Machaneh Dan.
Rav Naftali (ben Shlomo) Amsterdam, disciple of Rav Yisrael Salanter (1916). He immigrated to Eretz Yisrael in 1902. [Adar II]
Rav Chanoch Tzvi (ben Pinchas Yaakov) HaKohen Levin, the Bendiner Rav (1935). He was the son in-law of the Sfas Emes.
Rav Yosef Baumgarten, Av Bais Din Schiffschule in Vienna (1936)
Rav Yehoshua Dovid (ben Shlomo) Povarsky, rosh yeshiva of Yeshivas Ponovezh (1902-1999). When he was twelve years old, he learned with Rav Isser Zalman Meltzer in Slutzk. Afterward, he transferred to Poltova, where he became deeply attached to his rav muvhak, Rav Yeruchom Levovitz, whom he followed to Kelm and Ponovezh. From Ponovezh, he transferred to Mir yeshiva and became very close to Rav Chaim Shmuelevitz. One of his chavrusas in Shulchan Oruch was Rav Aharon Kotler. A while after his marriage, he transferred to the yeshiva in Baranowitz, where he studied under Rav Elchonon Wassermann. Later, Reb Yeruchom sent Rav Dovid to be a ram in Yeshivas Chachmei Lublin headed by Rav Meir Shapira of Lublin. Rav Dovid merited to form a special bond with Rav Chaim Ozer Grodzinsky. His divrei Torah were published as Yeshuos Dovid.

29 Adar

- Jews of Speyer massacred in Crusades, 1096.

- Emperor Charles V confirmed the privileges of Austrian Jews, 1544.

- Napolean captured Jaffa, 1799.

- The first Jewish immigrant to Israel to disembark at the Port of Eilat, 1957.

- Jews of Austria were required by law to belong to the government-established religious community in their town, 1890.

- Jews of Vienna were slaughtered in their shul and the remainder were forcibly converted, 1421.

- One day after the Italian Resistance killed 33 German SS military police, 335 Italians (including 75 Jews) were put to death by Nazis under the command of Captain Erich Priebke and Karl Hass at Fosse Ardeatine. In 1938, Bishop Alois Hudal of the Vatican supplied Priebke with a falsified visa to travel to Argentina (then led by Juan Perón). Though alleged to have been responsible for war crimes, Priebke lived in Argentina as a free man for 50 years.

30 Adar                              
- Headquarters of the Jewish Agency in Yerushalayim was bombed, resulting in the death of many Jews, 1948.
1 Adar                               
- Jews miraculously escaped violent earthquake in Italy, 1570.

- Release of the Tosefos Yom from prison (he was imprisoned due to a libel against him), 1643. The day is celebrated as a yom tov by his descendents.

- A priest vanquished in Syria, and the Jewish community was blamed, prompting imprisonment of Rav Yaakov Entebi, , the seven community elders, and a number of children. Ultimately, Sir Moses Montefiore interceded on their behalf and they were freed, 1840.

- Adolph Hitler was appointed chancellor of Germany, 1930.

- An earthquake in Agadir, Morocco killed 5000 people, including hundreds of Jews, 1960.

- Edwin H. Land first publically demonstrated his Polaroid Land camera, which could produce black and white photos in 60 seconds, 1947.

- Seventeen people were killed and 53 wounded in a suicide bombing of Egged bus No. 37 in the Carmel section of Haifa, en route to Haifa University. The suicide bomber was a member of Hamas and a computer student from the Hevron Polytechnic Institute. The women of the Al-sheikh neighborhood in the city of Hebron swarmed around the suicide bomber's mother in order to praise her. She went on to say "I am proud of my son's deed."  The victims were Maryam Atar, Smadar Firstater, Kamar Abu Hamed, Daniel Haroush, Mordechai Hershko, Tom Hershko, Meital Katav, Elizabeth Katzman, Tal Kehrmann, St.-Sgt. Eliyahu Laham, Abigail Litle, Yuval Mendellevich, St.-Sgt. Be'eri Oved, Mark Takash, Asaf Zur (Zollinger), Anatoly Biryakov, and Moran Shushan. [Adar II]

- Passing of Hindy Cohen (1986-2004) daughter of Baruch & Adina Cohen of Los Angeles, and a proud Bais Yaakov student.

2 Adar
- The Byzantine Emperor Justinian orders the public reading of the Greek translation of the Shabbos portion of the week, but prohibits Rabbis from speaking in public on the parasha, 553 CE.

- Massacre of the Jews of Freiberg, Germany, in the Black Death riots, 1349.

- Anti-Jewish riots in Cracow, 1682.

- Nazis confiscate all sefarim and sifrei Torah in the Kovno ghetto, 1942.

- Greek Jews from Salonika transported to Nazi extermination camps, 1943. (Of 50,000 Jews in Salonika, only 1,200 survived the Holocaust.)

- Knesset bill passed Mi Hu Yehudi - defining a Jew as one born to a Jewish mother or one "converted to Judaism", 1970.
3 Adar                     
- Second Beis Hamikdash completed, in 348 BCE (or 515 BCE), (Ezra 6:16)

- Jews of Lubeck, Germany, were expelled, 1699.
4 Adar                            
- The body of Rav Meir (Maharam) of Rotenburg's was released for burial in 1307, fourteen years after his death in the fortress of Ensisheim. He was buried in the old Jewish cemetery of Worms. Next to him was buried R. Alexander Susskind Wimpfen, who gave away his entire fortune to ransom the body. Both graves miraculously escaped Nazi ravaging of the cemetery.
5 Adar    
- First massacre of marranos - in Cordova - 1473. Although the Inquisition and the auto-da-fe was inflicted on anyone accused of heresy, its main victims were Jews. The Inquisition accused people of backsliding or heresy for actions such as not eating pig, washing hands before prayer, or changing clothes on Saturday. The number of victims in Spain alone is estimated at 39,912, many of whom were burned alive. Approximately 340,000 people, most of them Jews, suffered at the hands of the Inquisition, although the vast majority were given lesser punishments. The last auto-da-fe was held in 1790.

- Jews of Rome declared free citizens by the French army, 1798.

- Rafiq Al-Hariri was murdered by a suicide truck bomb as it passed St. George Hotel in Beirut, 2005. Hariri was an outspoken advocate to end Syria's 29-year occupation of Lebanon, a campaign which led to passage of UN Security Resolution 1559, on September 2004, calling for the withdrawal of Syrian troops and disarmament of Hezbollah. The latter was never implemented, as Israel learned a few years later. 

6 Adar

- The first printed edition of the whole Chumash with Onkelos and Rashi was published in Bologna, 1482.

- Expulsion of the Jews of the Free City of Lubeck, Germany, 1816, 117 years (almost to the day) after they were expelled the first time.


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